Subjunctive mood
Modo subjuntivo

The subjunctive mood expresses uncertainty or unreality such as wishes, emotions, possibilities, judgements, opinions, recommendations and obligations.

Usage
Uso

Simple tenses
Tiempos simples

Present
Presente

An action done in the present.

  • Te recomiendan que descanses toda la semana. = They recommend that you rest all the week.

Imperfect
Pretérito imperfecto

An action done in the past.

  • Me alegro de que viniéramos a este lugar. = I am glad that we came to this place.

A hypothetical action.

  • Si yo fuera tú, no lo haría. = If I were you, I wouldn’t do it.

The imperfect is preceded by if. It is then followed by the simple conditional tense of the conditional mood.

Future
Futuro

An action done in the future.

  • Espero que ella fuere mañana. = I hope that she will go tomorrow.

The future tense is rarely used in modern Spanish aside from some literature, legal documents and fixed expressions. It has been replaced by the present tense.

Compound tenses
Tiempos compuestos

Present perfect
Pretérito perfecto

A past event that has present consequences.

  • Es bueno que nos hayamos preparado comida. = It is good that we have prepared food for ourselves.

Pluperfect
Pluscuamperfecto

A past action that occurred prior to another past action.

  • Dudó que hubierais terminado cuando llegué. = I doubted that you (all) had finished when I arrived.

A hypothetical past action.

  • Si le hubieran dado el tiempo, ella habría comido. = If they had given her the time, she would have eaten.

The pluperfect is preceded by if and combines the subjunctive mood and the past participle verb form. It is then followed by the compound conditional tense of the conditional mood.

Future perfect
Futuro compuesto

A future action that will be finished right before another action.

  • Cuando llegues a la lección, es posible que hubieren salido todos. = When you arrive to the lesson, it is possible that everybody will have left.

The future perfect tense is rarely used in modern Spanish aside from some literature, legal documents and fixed expressions. It has been replaced by the present perfect tense.

Conjugation
Conjugación

-ar verbs
Verbos -ar

Infinitive: -ar
yo él/ella/ello
usted
nosotros
nosotras
vosotros
vosotras
ellos/ellas
ustedes
Present: -e -es -e -emos -éis -en
Imperfect: infinitive + a
-ase
infinitive + as
-ases
infinitive + a
-ase
infinitive + amos
-ásemos
infinitive + ais
-aseis
infinitive + an
-asen
Future: infinitive + e infinitive + es infinitive + e infinitive + emos infinitive + eis infinitive + en

-er/-ir verbs
Verbos -er/-ir

Infinitive: -er -ir
yo él/ella/ello
usted
nosotros
nosotras
vosotros
vosotras
ellos/ellas
ustedes
Present: -a -as -a -amos -áis -an
Imperfect: -iera
-iese
-ieras
-ieses
-iera
-iese
-iéramos
-iésemos
-ierais
-ieseis
-ieran
-iesen
Future: -iere -ieres -iere -iéremos -iereis -ieren