Demonstratives
Demostrativos

Demonstrative adjectives
Adjetivos demostrativos

Demonstrative adjectives are used with nouns to indicate what is being referred to and to distinguish it from other things.

Masculine Feminine Usage
Singular Plural Singular Plural
este estos esta estas For things within reach of the speaker.
ese esos esa esas For things within sight or in the vicinity of the speaker.
aquel aquella aquellos aquellas For things far from the speaker, either physically or temporally.
  • Este hombre es mi esposo. = This man is my husband.
    • The husband is within reach of the speaker and is seen by both the speaker and the listener.
  • Esos autos son rápidos. = Those cars are fast.
    • The cars may or may not be sight of the speaker/listener but they are close to them.
  • Esa mujer es profesora. = That woman is a teacher.
    • The woman may or may not be in sight of the speaker/listener but they are close to her.
  • Aquellas cosas son importantes. = Those things are important.
    • The things are far from the speaker. They may or may not be close to the listener, e.g. when communicating via telecommunications equipments.

Demonstrative pronouns
Pronombres demostrativos

Demonstrative adjectives are used without nouns (i.e. in place of them) to indicate what is being referred to and to distinguish it from other things. The neuter is used when speaking of unknown/unidentified objects and concepts/ideas.

Masculine Feminine Neuter Usage
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
éste éstos ésta éstas esto For things within reach of the speaker.
ése ésos ésa ésas eso For things within sight or in the vicinity of the speaker.
aquél aquéllos aquélla aquéllas aquello For things far away from the speaker, either physically or temporally.
  • Éste es mi esposo. = This is my husband.
    • Referring to a husband (esposo) who is within reach of the speaker.
  • Ésos son rápidos. = Those are fast.
    • Referring to cars (autos) which may or may not be in sight of the speaker/listener but they are close to them.
  • Ésa es profesora. = That is a professor.
    • Referring to a woman (mujer) who may or may not be in sight of the speaker/listener but who is close to them.
  • Aquéllas son importantes. = Those are important.
    • Referring to things (cosas) which are far from the speaker. They may or may not be close to the listener, e.g. when communicating via telecommunications equipments.
  • Esto no puede ser. = This can not be.
    • Referring to a situation which feels close to the speaker.
  • Eso no pasará. = That will not happen.
    • Referring to a situation which feels far from the speaker.
  • Aquello fue bien. = That went well.
    • Referring to a situation which feels far from the speaker in time.